Publications

For publications prior to 2011, see DBLP.

2022

  1. MobiSys
    AutoCast: Scalable Infrastructure-less Cooperative Perception for Distributed Collaborative Driving
    Qiu, Hang, Huang, Po-Han, Asavisanu, Namo, Liu, Xiaochen, Psounis, Konstantinos, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In 20th ACM International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys 22) 2022
  2. NSDI
    CloudCluster: Unearthing the Functional Structure of a Cloud Service
    Pang, Weiwu, Panda, Sourav, Amjad, Jehangir, Diot, Christophe, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In 19th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI 22) 2022

    In their quest to provide customers with good tools to manage cloud services, cloud providers are hampered by having very little visibility into cloud service functionality; a provider often only knows where VMs of a service are placed, how the virtual networks are configured, how VMs are provisioned, and how VMs communicate with each other. In this paper, we show that, using the VM-to-VM traffic matrix, we can unearth the functional structure of a cloud service and use it to aid cloud service management. Leveraging the observation that cloud services use well-known design patterns for scaling (e.g., replication, communication locality), we show that clustering the VM-to-VM traffic matrix yields the functional structure of the cloud service. Our clustering algorithm, CloudCluster, must overcome challenges imposed by scale (cloud services contain tens of thousands of VMs) and must be robust to orders-of-magnitude variability in traffic volume and measurement noise. To do this, CloudCluster uses a novel combination of feature scaling, dimensionality reduction, and hierarchical clustering to achieve clustering with over 92% homogeneity and completeness. We show that CloudCluster can be used to explore opportunities to reduce cost for customers, identify anomalous traffic and potential misconfigurations.

2021

  1. SoCC
    Scrooge: A Cost-Effective Deep Learning Inference System
    Hu, Yitao, Ghosh, Rajrup, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In SoCC ’21: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Cloud Computing 2021

    Advances in deep learning (DL) have prompted the development of cloud-hosted DL-based media applications that process video and audio streams in real-time. Such applications must satisfy throughput and latency objectives and adapt to novel types of dynamics, while incurring minimal cost. Scrooge, a system that provides media applications as a service, achieves these objectives by packing computations efficiently into GPU-equipped cloud VMs, using an optimization formulation to find the lowest cost VM allocations that meet the performance objectives, and rapidly reacting to variations in input complexity (e.g., changes in participants in a video). Experiments show that Scrooge can save serving cost by 16-32% (which translate to tens of thousands of dollars per year) relative to the state-of-the-art while achieving latency objectives for over 98% under dynamic workloads.

  2. TMC
    Synthesis of Large-Scale Instant IoT Networks
    Ghosh, Pradipta, Bunton, Jonathan, Pylorof, Dimitrios, Vieira, Marcos A. M., Chan, Kevin, Govindan, Ramesh, Sukhatme, Gaurav S., Tabuada, Paulo, and Verma, Gunjan
    IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing 2021

    While most networks have long lifetimes, temporary network infrastructure is often useful for special events, pop-up retail, or disaster response. An instant IoT network is one that is rapidly constructed, used for a few days, then dismantled. We consider the synthesis of instant IoT networks in urban settings. This synthesis problem must satisfy complex and competing constraints: sensor coverage, line-of-sight visibility, and network connectivity. The central challenge in our synthesis problem is quickly scaling to large regions while producing cost-effective solutions. We explore two qualitatively different representations of the synthesis problems using satisfiability modulo convex optimization (SMC), and mixed-integer linear programming (MILP). The former is more expressive, for our problem, than the latter, but is less well-suited for solving optimization problems like ours. We show how to express our network synthesis in these frameworks. To scale to problem sizes beyond what these frameworks are capable of, we develop a hierarchical synthesis technique that independently synthesizes networks in sub-regions of the deployment area, then combines these. We find that, while MILP outperforms SMC in some settings for smaller problem sizes, the fact that SMC’s expressivity matches our problem ensures that it uniformly generates better quality solutions at larger problem sizes.

  3. SIGCOMM
    A Throughput-Centric View of the Performance of Datacenter Topologies
    Namyar, Pooria, Supittayapornpong, Sucha, Zhang, Mingyang, Yu, Minlan, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the 2021 ACM SIGCOMM 2021 Conference 2021

    While prior work has explored many proposed datacenter designs, only two designs, Clos-based and expander-based, are generally considered practical because they can scale using commodity switching chips. Prior work has used two different metrics, bisection bandwidth and throughput, for evaluating these topologies at scale. Little is known, theoretically or practically, how these metrics relate to each other. Exploiting characteristics of these topologies, we prove an upper bound on their throughput, then show that this upper bound better estimates worst-case throughput than all previously proposed throughput estimators and scales better than most of them. Using this upper bound, we show that for expander-based topologies, unlike Clos, beyond a certain size of the network, no topology can have full throughput, even if it has full bisection bandwidth; in fact, even relatively small expander-based topologies fail to achieve full throughput. We conclude by showing that using throughput to evaluate datacenter performance instead of bisection bandwidth can alter conclusions in prior work about datacenter cost, manageability, and reliability.

  4. ANRW
    Tools for Disambiguating RFCs
    Yen, Jane, Govindan, Ramesh, and Raghavan, Barath
    In Proceedings of the Applied Networking Research Workshop 2021

    For decades, drafting Internet protocols has taken significant amounts of human supervision due to the fundamental ambiguity of natural language. Given such ambiguity, it is also not surprising that protocol implementations have long exhibited bugs. This pain and overhead can be significantly reduced with the help of natural language processing (NLP).We recently applied NLP to identify ambiguous or under-specified sentences in RFCs, and to generate protocol implementations automatically when the ambiguity is clarified. However this system is far from general or deployable. To further reduce the overhead and errors due to ambiguous sentences, and to improve the generality of this system, much work remains to be done. In this paper, we consider what it would take to produce a fully-general and useful system for easing the natural-language challenges in the RFC process.

  5. IoTDI
    Rim: Offloading Inference to the Edge
    Hu, Yitao, Pang, Weiwu, Liu, Xiaochen, Ghosh, Rajrup, Ko, Bongjun, Lee, Wei-Han, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE Conference on Internet of Things Design and Implementation, 2021 2021
  6. SIGCOMM
    Semi-Automated Protocol Disambiguation and Code Generation
    Yen, Jane, Lévai, Tamás, Ye, Qinyuan, Ren, Xiang, Govindan, Ramesh, and Raghavan, Barath
    In Proceedings of the 2021 ACM SIGCOMM 2021 Conference 2021

    For decades, Internet protocols have been specified using natural language. Given the ambiguity inherent in such text, it is not surprising that protocol implementations have long exhibited bugs. In this paper, we apply natural language processing (NLP) to effect semi-automated generation of protocol implementations from specification text. Our system, Sage, can uncover ambiguous or under-specified sentences in specifications; once these are clarified by the author of the protocol specification, Sage can generate protocol code automatically.Using Sage, we discover 5 instances of ambiguity and 6 instances of under-specification in the ICMP RFC; after fixing these, Sage is able to automatically generate code that interoperates perfectly with Linux implementations. We show that Sage generalizes to sections of BFD, IGMP, and NTP and identify additional conceptual components that Sage needs to support to generalize to complete, complex protocols like BGP and TCP.

2020

  1. ArXiv
    Grab: Fast and Accurate Sensor Processing for Cashier-Free Shopping
    Liu, Xiaochen, Jiang, Yurong, Kim, Kyu-Han, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In 2020
  2. NSDI
    CarMap-Fast 3D Feature Map Updates for Automobiles
    Ahmad, Fawad, Qiu, Hang, Eells, Ray, Bai, Fan, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In 17th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI 20) 2020
  3. ICCCN
    Rapid Top-Down Synthesis of Large-Scale IoT Networks
    Ghosh, Pradipta, Bunton, Jonathan, Pylorof, Dimitrios, Vieira, Marcos, Chan, Kevin, Govindan, Ramesh, Sukhatme, Gaurav, Tabuada, Paulo, and Verma, Gunjan
    In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN) 2020
  4. IoTJ
    New Frontiers in IoT: Networking, Systems, Reliability, and Security Challenges
    Bagchi, Saurabh, Abdelzaher, Tarek F, Govindan, Ramesh, Shenoy, Prashant, Atrey, Akanksha, Ghosh, Pradipta, and Xu, Ran
    IEEE Internet of Things Journal 2020
  5. IROS
    Persistent Connected Power Constrained Surveillance with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
    Ghosh, Pradipta, Tabuada, Paulo, Govindan, Ramesh, and Sukhatme, Gaurav S
    In Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) 2020
  6. CoNEXT
    Meeting SLOs in Cross-Platform NFV
    Yen, Jane, Wang, Jianfeng, Supittayapornpong, Sucha, Vieira, Marcos A M, Govindan, Ramesh, and Raghavan, Barath
    In Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Emerging Networking EXperiments and Technologies 2020

    Network Functions (NFs) perform on-path processing of network traffic. ISPs are deploying NF Virtualization (NFV) with software NFs run on commodity servers. ISPs aim to ensure that NF chains, directed acyclic graphs of NFs, do not violate Service Level Objectives (SLOs) promised by the ISP to its customers. To meet SLOs, NFV systems sometimes leverage on-path hardware (such as programmable switches and smart NICs) to accelerate NF execution.Lemur places and executes NF chains across heterogeneous hardware while meeting SLOs. Lemur’s novel placement algorithm yields an SLO-satisfying NF placement while weighing many constraints: hardware memory and processing stages, server cores, link capacity, NF profiles, and NF chain interactions. Lemur’s metacompiler automatically generates code and rules (in P4, Python, eBPF, C++, and OpenFlow) to stitch cross-platform NF chain execution while also optimizing resource usage. Our experiments show that Lemur is alone among competing strategies in meeting SLOs for canonical NF chains while maximizing marginal throughput (the traffic rate in excess of the service-level objective).

2019

  1. CoNEXT
    AViC: A Cache for Adaptive Bitrate Video
    Akhtar, Zahaib, Li, Yaguang, Govindan, Ramesh, Halepovic, Emir, Liu, Yan, Hao, Shuai, and Sen, Subhabrata
    In 15th ACM Conference on emerging Networking EXperiments and Technologies (CoNEXT) Orlando, Florida, U.S. December 9-12, 2019 2019
  2. SenSys
    Caesar: Cross-camera Complex Activity Recognition
    Liu, Xiaochen, Ghosh, Pradipta, Ulutan, Oytun, Manjunath, B.S., Chan, Kevin, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In 15th ACM Conference on emerging Networking EXperiments and Technologies (CoNEXT) Orlando, Florida, U.S. December 9-12, 2019 2019
  3. SIGCOMM
    Towards Highly Available Clos-Based WAN Routers
    Supittayapornpong, Sucha, Raghavan, Barath, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In 15th ACM Conference on emerging Networking EXperiments and Technologies (CoNEXT) Orlando, Florida, U.S. December 9-12, 2019 2019

    The performance and availability of cloud and content providers often depends on the wide area networks (WANs) they use to interconnect their datacenters. WAN routers, which connect to each other using trunks (bundles of links), are sometimes built using an internal Clos topology connecting merchant-silicon switches. As such, these routers are susceptible to internal link and switch failures, resulting in reduced capacity and low availability. Based on the observation that today’s WAN routers use relatively simple trunk wiring and routing techniques, we explore the design of novel wiring and more sophisticated routing techniques to increase failure resilience. Specifically, we describe techniques to 1) optimize trunk wiring to increase effective internal router capacity so as to be resilient to internal failures, 2) compute the effective capacity under different failure patterns, and 3) use these to compute compact routing tables under different failure patterns, since switches have limited routing table sizes. Our evaluations show that our approach can mask failures of up to 75% of switches in some cases without exceeding routing table limits, whereas competing techniques can sometimes lose half of a WAN router’s capacity with a single failure.

  4. NSDI
    Understanding Lifecycle Management Complexity of Datacenter Topologies
    Zhang, Mingyang, Mysore, Radhika Niranjan, Supittayapornpong, Sucha, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In 15th ACM Conference on emerging Networking EXperiments and Technologies (CoNEXT) Orlando, Florida, U.S. December 9-12, 2019 2019

2018

  1. Middleware
    Olympian: Scheduling GPU Usage in a Deep Neural Network Model Serving System
    Hu, Yitao, Rallapalli, Swati, Ko, Bongjun, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the 19th International Middleware Conference 2018
  2. IMC
    Understanding Video Management Planes
    Akhtar, Zahaib, Nam, Yun Seong, Chen, Jessica, Govindan, Ramesh, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, Rao, Sanjay, Zhan, Jibin, and Zhang, Hui
    In Proceedings of the Internet Measurement Conference 2018 2018
  3. ICDCS
    Will Distributed Computing Revolutionize Peace? The Emergence of Battlefield IoT
    Abdelzaher, Tarek, Ayanian, Nora, Basar, Tamer, Diggavi, Suhas, Diesner, Jana, Ganesan, Deepak, Govindan, Ramesh, Jha, Susmit, Lepoint, Tancrede, Marlin, Ben, Nahrstedt, Klara, Nicol, David, Rajkumar, Raj, Russell, Stephen, Seshia, Sanjit, Sha, Fei, Shenoy, Prashant, Srivastava, Mani, Saukhatme, Gaurav, Swami, Ananthram, Tabuada, Paulo, Towsley, Don, Vaidya, Nitin, and Veeravalli, Venu
    In Proceedings of the Internet Measurement Conference 2018 2018

    An upcoming frontier for distributed computing might literally save lives in future military operations. In civilian scenarios, significant efficiencies were gained from interconnecting devices into networked services and applications that automate much of everyday life from smart homes to intelligent transportation. The ecosystem of such applications and services is collectively called the Internet of Things (IoT). Can similar benefits be gained in a military context by developing an IoT for the battlefield? This paper describes unique challenges in such a context as well as potential risks, mitigation strategies, and benefits.

  4. FUSION
    QuickSketch: Building 3D Representations in Unknown Environments Using Crowdsourcing
    Ahmad, Fawad, Qiu, Hang, Liu, Xiaochen, Bai, Fan, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In 2018 21st International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION) 2018
  5. IoTDI
    Kestrel: Video Analytics for Augmented Multi-Camera Vehicle Tracking
    Qiu, H, Liu, X, Rallapalli, S, Bency, A J, Chan, K, Urgaonkar, R, Manjunath, B S, and Govindan, R
    In 2018 IEEE/ACM Third International Conference on Internet-of-Things Design and Implementation (IoTDI) 2018
  6. Eurosys
    Wide-Area Analytics with Multiple Resources
    Hung, Chien-Chun, Ananthanarayanan, Ganesh, Golubchik, Leana, Yu, Minlan, and Zhang, Mingyang
    In 2018 IEEE/ACM Third International Conference on Internet-of-Things Design and Implementation (IoTDI) 2018

    Running data-parallel jobs across geo-distributed sites has emerged as a promising direction due to the growing need for geo-distributed cluster deployment. A key difference between geo-distributed and intra-cluster jobs is the heterogeneous (and often constrained) nature of compute and network resources across the sites. We propose Tetrium, a system for multi-resource allocation in geo-distributed clusters, that jointly considers both compute and network resources for task placement and job scheduling. Tetrium significantly reduces job response time, while incorporating several other performance goals with simple control knobs. Our EC2 deployment and trace-driven simulations suggest that Tetrium improves the average job response time by up to 78% compared to existing data-locality-based solutions, and up to 55% compared to Iridium, the recently proposed geo-distributed analytics system.

  7. TVT
    Towards Robust Vehicular Context Sensing
    Qiu, H, Chen, J, Jain, S, Jiang, Y, McCartney, M, Kar, G, Bai, F, Grimm, D K, Gruteser, M, and Govindan, R
    IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 2018
  8. Mobisys
    AVR: Augmented Vehicular Reality
    Qiu, Hang, Ahmad, Fawad, Bai, Fan, Gruteser, Marco, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (Mobisys) 2018

    Autonomous vehicle prototypes today come with line-of-sight depth perception sensors like 3D cameras. These 3D sensors are used for improving vehicular safety in autonomous driving, but have fundamentally limited visibility due to occlusions, sensing range, and extreme weather and lighting conditions. To improve visibility and performance, we explore a capability called Augmented Vehicular Reality (AVR). AVR broadens the vehicle’s visual horizon by enabling it to wirelessly share visual information with other nearby vehicles. We show that AVR is feasible using off-the-shelf wireless technologies, and it can qualitatively change the decisions made by autonomous vehicle path planning algorithms. Our AVR prototype achieves positioning accuracies that are within a few percentages of car lengths and lane widths, and it is optimized to process frames at 30fps.

  9. Mobisys
    TAR: Enabling Fine-Grained Targeted Advertising in Retail Stores
    Liu, Xiaochen, Jiang, Yurong, Jain, Puneet, and Kim, Kyu-Han
    In Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (Mobisys) 2018
  10. Mobisys
    Gnome: A Practical Approach to NLOS Mitigation for GPS Positioning in Smartphones
    Liu, Xiaochen, Nath, Suman, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (Mobisys) 2018
  11. SIGCOMM
    Oboe: Auto-tuning Video ABR Algorithms to Network Conditions
    Akhtar, Zahaib, Nam, Yun Seong, Govindan, Ramesh, Rao, Sanjay, Chen, Jessica, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, Ribeiro, Bruno, Zhan, Jibin, and Zhang, Hui
    In Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the ACM Special Interest Group on Data Communication (SIGCOMM) 2018
  12. ToN
    Scalability and Satisfiability of Quality-of-Information in Wireless Networks
    Rager, Scott T, Ciftcioglu, Ertugrul N, Ramanathan, Ram, Porta, Thomas F La, and Govindan, Ramesh
    IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 2018

2017

  1. ICDCS
    Decision-Driven Execution: A Distributed Resource Management Paradigm for the Age of IoT
    Abdelzaher, T, Amin, M T A, Bar-Noy, A, Dron, W, Govindan, R, Hobbs, R, Hu, S, Kim, J, Lee, J, Marcus, K, Yao, S, and Zhao, Y
    In 2017 IEEE 37th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS) 2017
  2. TSMC
    Shortest Processing Time Scheduling to Reduce Traffic Congestion in Dense Urban Areas
    Ahmad, Fawad, Mahmud, SA, and Yousaf, FZ
    IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems 2017
  3. HotMobile
    Augmented Vehicular Reality: Enabling Extended Vision for Future Vehicles
    Qiu, Hang, Ahmad, Fawad, Govindan, Ramesh, Gruteser, Marco, and Bai, Gorkem Kar Fan
    In the 18th Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications (HotMobile 2017) 2017

    Like today’s autonomous vehicle prototypes, vehicles in the future will have rich sensors to map and identify objects in the environment. For example, many autonomous vehicle prototypes today come with line-of-sight depth perception sensors like 3D cameras. These cameras are used for improving vehicular safety in autonomous driving, but have fundamentally limited visibility due to occlusions, sensing range, and extreme weather and lighting conditions. To improve visibility and performance, not just for autonomous vehicles but for other Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS), we explore a capability called Augmented Vehicular Reality (AVR). AVR broadens the vehicle’s visual horizon by enabling it to share visual information with other nearby vehicles, but requires careful techniques to align coordinate frames of reference, and to detect dynamic objects. Preliminary evaluations hint at the feasibility of AVR and also highlight research challenges in achieving AVR’s potential to improve autonomous vehicles and ADAS.

  4. SIGCOMM
    SilkRoad: Making Stateful Layer-4 Load Balancing Fast and Cheap Using Switching ASICs
    Miao, Rui, Zeng, Hongyi, Kim, Changhoon, Lee, Jeongkeun, and Yu, Minlan
    In Proceedings of the Conference of the ACM Special Interest Group on Data Communication 2017
  5. SEC
    Real-time Traffic Estimation at Vehicular Edge Nodes
    Kar, Gorkem, Jain, Shubham, Gruteser, Marco, Bai, Fan, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the Second ACM/IEEE Symposium on Edge Computing 2017
  6. SEC
    PredriveID: Pre-trip Driver Identification from In-vehicle Data
    Kar, Gorkem, Jain, Shubham, Gruteser, Marco, Chen, Jinzhu, Bai, Fan, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the Second ACM/IEEE Symposium on Edge Computing 2017

2016

  1. OSDI
    The SNOW Theorem and Latency-Optimal Read-Only Transactions
    Lu, Haonan, Hodsdon, Christopher, Ngo, Khiem, Mu, Shuai, and Lloyd, Wyatt
    In the 12th USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI ’16) 2016
  2. UbiComp
    ALPS: Accurate Landmark Positioning at City Scales
    Hu, Yitao, Liu, Xiaochen, Nath, Suman, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In the 2016 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp 2016) 2016
  3. Internet-QoE
    BingeOn Under the Microscope: Understanding T-Mobile’s Zero-Rating Implementation
    Kakhki, A M, Li, F, Choffnes, D, Mislove, A, and Katz-Bassett, Ethan
    In ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Internet Quality of Experience, 2016 2016
  4. SIGCOMM
    Evolve or Die: High-Availability Design Principles Drawn from Google’s Network Infrastructure
    Govindan, Ramesh, Minei, Ina, Kallahalla, Mahesh, Koley, Bikash, and Vahdat, Amin
    In Proceedings of the ACM Conference of the Special Interest Group on Data Communication (SIGCOMM ’16) 2016
  5. SIGCOMM
    An Internet-Wide Analysis of Traffic Policing
    Flach, Tobias, Papageorge, Pavlos, Terzis, Andreas, Pedrosa, Luis, Cheng, Yuchung, Karim, Tayeb, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the ACM Conference of the Special Interest Group on Data Communication (SIGCOMM ’16) 2016
  6. SIGCOMM
    WebPerf: Evaluating “What-If” Scenarios for Cloud-hosted Web Applications
    Jiang, Yurong, Ravindranath, Lenin, Nath, Suman, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the ACM Conference of the Special Interest Group on Data Communication (SIGCOMM ’16) 2016
  7. SIGCOMM
    Trumpet: Timely and Precise Triggers in Data Centers
    Moshref, Masoud, Yu, Minlan, Govindan, Ramesh, and Vahdat, Amin
    In Proceedings of the ACM Conference of the Special Interest Group on Data Communication (SIGCOMM ’16) 2016
  8. MobiHoc
    High-rate WiFi Broadcasting in Crowded Scenarios via Lightweight Coordination of Multiple Access Points
    Qiu, Hang, Psounis, Konstantinos, Caire, Giuseppe, Chugg, Keith M, and Wang, Kaidong
    In Proceedings of the 17th ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiHoc ’16) 2016
  9. NSDI
    FlowRadar: A Better NetFlow for Data Centers
    Li, Yuliang, Miao, Rui, Kim, Changhoon, and Yu, Minlan
    In Proceedings of the 13th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI’16) 2016
  10. ICASSP
    Context adaptive thresholding and entropy coding for very low complexity JPEG transcoding
    Xu, Xing, Akhtar, Zahaib, Govindan, Ramesh, Lloyd, Wyatt, and Ortega, Antonio
    In 2016 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP) 2016
  11. PAM
    Modeling HTTP/2 Speed from HTTP/1 Traces
    Zarifis, Kyriakos, Holland, Mark, Jain, Manish, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Passive and Active Measurement Conference (PAM ’16) 2016
  12. NSDI
    Sibyl: A Practical Internet Route Oracle
    Marchetta, Pietro, Cunha, Italo, Calder, Matt, Chiu, Yi-Ching, Machado, Bruno Vinicius Ávila, Schlinker, Brandon, Pescapè, Antonio, Giotsas, Vasileios, Madhyastha, Harsha V, and Katz-Bassett, Ethan
    In Proceedings of the 13th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI’16) 2016
  13. CACM
    Helping Conference Attendees Better Understand Research Presentations
    Katz-Bassett, Ethan, Sherry, J, Huang, T -Y, Kazandjieva, M, Partridge, C, and Dogar, F
    In Communications of the ACM (CACM) 2016
  14. PLoSONE
    Do Emotions Expressed Online Correlate with Actual Changes in Decision-Making?: The Case of Stock Day Traders
    Liu, Bin, Govindan, Ramesh, and Uzzi, Brian
    PLoSONE 2016
  15. ComNet
    DBit: Assessing statistically significant differences in CDN performance
    Akhtar, Zahaib, Hussain, Alefiya, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, and Govindan, Ramesh
    Computer Networks 2016
  16. PLoSONE
    Do Emotions Expressed Online Correlate with Actual Changes in Decision-Making?: The Case of Stock Day Traders
    Liu, Bin, Govindan, Ramesh, and Uzzi, Brian
    PLoSONE 2016

2015

  1. CoNEXT
    SCREAM: Sketch Resource Allocation for Software-defined Measurement
    Moshref, Masoud, Yu, Minlan, Govindan, Ramesh, and Vahdat, Amin
    In ACM International Conference on emerging Networking EXperiments and Technologies (CoNEXT) 2015
  2. RTSS
    Data Acquisition for Real-Time Decision-Making under Freshness Constraints
    Hu, S, Yao, S, Jin, H, Zhao, Y, Hu, Y, Liu, X, Naghibolhosseini, N, Li, S, Kapoor, A, Dron, W, Su, L, Bar-Noy, A, Szekely, P, Govindan, R, Hobbs, R, and Abdelzaher, T F
    In 2015 IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium 2015
  3. HotNets
    Re-evaluating Measurement Algorithms in Software
    Alipourfard, Omid, Moshref, Masoud, and Yu, Minlan
    In In Proceedings of the 14th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (HotNets) 2015
  4. SenSys
    CARLOC: Precisely Tracking Automobile Position
    Jiang, Yurong, Qiu, Hang, McCartney, Matthew, Sukhatme, Gaurav, Gruteser, Marco, Bai, Fan, Grimm, Donald, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the 13th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys) 2015
  5. SOSP
    Existential Consistency: Measuring and Understanding Consistency at Facebook
    Lu, Haonan, Veeraraghavan, Kaushik, Ajoux, Philippe, Hunt, Jim, Song, Yee Jiun, Tobagus, Wendy, Kumar, Sanjeev, and Lloyd, Wyatt
    In Proceedings of the 25th ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles (SOSP’15) 2015
  6. IMC
    Investigating Interdomain Routing Policies in the Wild
    Anwar, R, Niaz, H, Choffnes, D, Cunha, I, Gill, P, and Katz-Bassett, Ethan
    In ACM Internet Measurement Conference (IMC) 2015
  7. IMC
    Analyzing the Performance of an Anycast CDN
    Calder, Matt, Flavel, Ashley, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, Mahajan, R, and Padhye, J
    In ACM Internet Measurement Conference (IMC) 2015
  8. IMC
    Are We One Hop Away from a Better Internet?
    Chiu, Yi-Ching, Schlinker, Brandon, Radhakrishnan, Abhishek Balaji, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In ACM Internet Measurement Conference (IMC) 2015
  9. SIGCOMM
    Condor: Better Topologies Through Declarative Design
    Schlinker, Brandon, Mysore, Radhika Niranjan, Smith, Sean, Mogul, Jeffrey C, Vahdat, Amin, Yu, Minlan, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, and Rubin, Michael
    In Proceedings of the ACM Conference of the Special Interest Group on Data Communication (SIGCOMM ’15) 2015
  10. DCOSS
    On Exploiting Logical Dependencies for Minimizing Additive Cost Metrics in Resource-Limited Crowdsensing
    Hu, S, Li, S, Yao, S, Su, L, Govindan, R, Hobbs, R, and Abdelzaher, T F
    In 2015 International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems 2015
  11. NSDI
    A General Approach to Network Configuration Analysis
    Fogel, Ari, Fung, Stanley, Pedrosa, Luis, Walraed-Sullivan, Meg, Govindan, Ramesh, Mahajan, Ratul, and Millstein, Todd
    In 12th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI 15) 2015
  12. TMA
    Assessing Affinity Between Users and CDN Sites
    Fan, Xun, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, and Heidemann, John
    In Workshop on Traffic Monitoring and Analysis (TMA) 2015
  13. INFOCOM
    Rapier: Integrating routing and scheduling for coflow-aware data center networks
    Zhao, Y, Chen, K, Bai, W, Yu, M, Tian, C, Geng, Y, Zhang, Y, Li, D, and Wang, S
    In 2015 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM) 2015
  14. PAM
    Investigating Transparent Web Proxies in Cellular Networks
    Xu, Xing, Jiang, Yurong, Flach, Tobias, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, Choffnes, David, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the Passive and Active Measurement Conference (PAM ’15) 2015
  15. NSDI
    Analyzing Protocol Implementations for Interoperability
    Pedrosa, Luis, Fogel, Ari, Kothari, Nupur, Govindan, Ramesh, Mahajan, Ratul, and Millstein, Todd
    In 12th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI 15) 2015
  16. IMC
    The Dark Menace: Characterizing Network-based Attacks in the Cloud
    Miao, Rui, Potharaju, Rahul, Yu, Minlan, and Jain, Navendu
    In Proceedings of the 2015 Internet Measurement Conference 2015
  17. SIGMETRICS PER
    Speculation-aware Cluster Scheduling
    Ren, Xiaoqi, Ananthanarayanan, Ganesh, Wierman, Adam, and Yu, Minlan
    SIGMETRICS Perform. Eval. Rev. 2015
  18. MobiSys
    Efficient Privilege De-Escalation for Ad Libraries in Mobile Apps
    Liu, Bin, Liu, Bin, Jin, Hongxia, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the 13th Annual International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services 2015
  19. SIGCOMM
    Hopper: Decentralized Speculation-aware Cluster Scheduling at Scale
    Ren, Xiaoqi, Ananthanarayanan, Ganesh, Wierman, Adam, and Yu, Minlan
    In Proceedings of the 2015 ACM Conference on Special Interest Group on Data Communication 2015
  20. FAST
    RIPQ: Advanced Photo Caching on Flash for Facebook
    Tang, Linpeng, Huang, Qi, Lloyd, Wyatt, Kumar, Sanjeev, and Li, Kai
    In 13th USENIX Conference on File and Storage Technologies (FAST 15) 2015
  21. CoNEXT
    Magus: Minimizing Cellular Service Disruption During Network Upgrades
    Xu, Xing, Broustis, Ioannis, Ge, Zihui, Govindan, Ramesh, Mahimkar, Ajay, Shankaranarayanan, N K, and Wang, Jia
    In Proceedings of the 11th ACM Conference on Emerging Networking Experiments and Technologies 2015
  22. ComNet
    Joint VM placement and topology optimization for traffic scalability in dynamic datacenter networks
    Zhao, Yangming, Huang, Yifan, Chen, Kai, Yu, Minlan, Wang, Sheng, and Li, DongSheng
    Computer Networks 2015
  23. SoCC
    Scheduling Jobs Across Geo-distributed Datacenters
    Hung, Chien-Chun, Golubchik, Leana, and Yu, Minlan
    In Proceedings of the Sixth ACM Symposium on Cloud Computing 2015
  24. SenSys
    Poster: Accurate Vehicle Detection in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Using Wireless Magnetic Sensors
    Ahmad, Fawad, and Mahmud, Sahibzada Ali
    In Proceedings of the 13th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems 2015

2014

  1. NSFCloud
    Flexible Internet Routing for Cloud Tenants and Cloud Researchers
    Katz-Bassett, Ethan, and Schlinker, Brandon
    In NSFCloud Workshop on Experimental Support for Cloud Computing 2014
  2. SenSys
    CarLog: A Platform for Flexible and Efficient Automotive Sensing
    Jiang, Yurong, Qiu, Hang, McCartney, Matthew, Halfond, William G J, Bai, Fan, Grimm, Donald, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the 12th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys’14) 2014
  3. HotNets
    PEERING: An AS for Us
    Schlinker, Brandon, Zarifis, Kyriakos, Cunha, Italo, Feamster, Nick, and Katz-Bassett, Ethan
    In Proceedings of the 13th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (HotNets) 2014
  4. OSDI
    Extracting More Concurrency from Distributed Transactions
    Mu, Shuai, Cui, Yang, Zhang, Yang, Lloyd, Wyatt, and Li, Jinyang
    In Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI) 2014
  5. OSDI
    f4: Facebook’s Warm BLOB Storage System
    Muralidhar, Subramanian, Lloyd, Wyatt, Roy, Sabyasachi, Hill, Cory, Lin, Ernest, Liu, Weiwen, Pan, Satadru, Shankar, Shiva, Sivakumar, Viswanath, Tang, Linpeng, and Kumar, Sanjeev
    In Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI) 2014
  6. ICSME
    An Empirical Study of the Energy Consumption of Android Applications
    Li, Ding, Hao, Shuai, Gui, Jiaping, and Halfond, William G J
    In Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution (ICSME’14) 2014
  7. SIGCOMM
    SDX: A Software Defined Internet Exchange
    Gupta, Arpit, Vanbever, Laurent, Shahbaz, Muhammad, Donovan, Sean P, Schlinker, Brandon, Feamster, Nick, Rexford, Jennifer, Shenker, Scott, Clark, Russ, and Katz-Bassett, Ethan
    In Proceedings of the ACM Conference of the Special Interest Group on Data Communication (SIGCOMM ’14) 2014
  8. HotSDN
    Flow-level State Transition as a New Switch Primitive for SDN
    Moshref, Masoud, Bhargava, Apoorv, Gupta, Adhip, Yu, Minlan, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Hot Topics in Software Defined Networking (HotSDN’14) 2014
  9. SIGCOMM
    DREAM: Dynamic Resource Allocation for Software-defined Measurement
    Moshref, Masoud, Yu, Minlan, Govindan, Ramesh, and Vahdat, Amin
    In Proceedings of the ACM Conference of the Special Interest Group on Data Communication (SIGCOMM ’14) 2014
  10. MobiSys
    PUMA: Programmable UI-Automation for Large-Scale Dynamic Analysis of Mobile Apps
    Hao, Shuai, Liu, Bin, Nath, Suman, Halfond, William G J, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys’14) 2014
  11. NSDI
    DECAF: Detecting and Characterizing Ad Fraud in Mobile Apps
    Liu, Bin, Nath, Suman, Govindan, Ramesh, and Liu, Jie
    In Proceedings of the 11th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI’14) 2014
  12. NSDI
    GRASS: Trimming Stragglers in Approximation Analytics
    Ananthanarayanan, Ganesh, Hung, Michael Chien-Chun, Ren, Xiaoqi, Stoica, Ion, Wierman, Adam, and Yu, Minlan
    In Proceedings of the 11th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI’14) 2014
  13. NSDI
    FlowTags: Enforcing Network-Wide Policies in the Presence of Dynamic Middlebox Actions
    Fayazbakhsh, Seyed Kaveh, Chiang, Luis, Sekar, Vyas, Yu, Minlan, and Mogul, Jeff
    In Proceedings of the 11th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI’14) 2014
  14. INFOCOM
    Loss Differentiation: Moving onto High-Speed Wireless LANs
    Anwar, Ruwaifa, Nishat, Kamran, Ali, Mohsin, Akhtar, Zahaib, Niaz, Haseeb, and Qazi, Ihsan Ayyub
    In IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM ’14) 2014
  15. EuroSys
    DIBS: Just-in-time Congestion Mitigation for Data Centers
    Miao, Kyriakos Zarifis Rui, Calder, Matt, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, Yu, Minlan, and Padhye, Jitendra
    In Ninth Eurosys Conference 2014, EuroSys 2014 2014
  16. USC TR
    Investigating Transparent Web Proxies in Cellular Networks
    Xu, Xing, Jiang, Yurong, Flach, Tobias, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, Choffnes, David, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Ninth Eurosys Conference 2014, EuroSys 2014 2014
  17. ONS
    Try Before you Buy: SDN Emulation with (Real) Interdomain Routing
    Schlinker, Brandon, Zarifis, Kyriakos, Cunha, Italo, Feamster, Nick, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, and Yu, Minlan
    In Proceedings of the 2014 Open Networking Summit (ONS), published by USENIX 2014
  18. ONS
    Extending SDN to Handle Dynamic Middlebox Actions via FlowTags
    Fayazbakhsh, Seyed Kaveh, Chiang, Luis, Sekar, Vyas, Yu, Minlan, and Mogul, Jeff
    In Proceedings of the 2014 Open Networking Summit (ONS), published by USENIX 2014
  19. ONS
    Jive: Performance Driven Abstraction and Optimization for SDN
    Lazaris, Aggelos, Tahara, Daniel, Huang, Xin, Li, Li Erran, Voellmy, Andreas, Yang, Richard Y, and Yu, Minlan
    In Proceedings of the 2014 Open Networking Summit (ONS), published by USENIX 2014
  20. ONS
    SENSS: Software-defined Security Service
    Yu, Minlan, Zhang, Ying, Mirkovic, Jelena, and Alwabel, Abdulla
    In Proceedings of the 2014 Open Networking Summit (ONS), published by USENIX 2014
  21. PAM
    Diagnosing Path Inflation of Mobile Client Traffic
    Zarifis, Kyriakos, Flach, Tobias, Nori, Srikanth, Choffnes, David, Govindan, Ramesh, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, Mao, Morley Z, and Welsh, Matt
    In Passive and Active Measurement Conference (PAM ’14) 2014
  22. PAM
    Mobile Network Performance from User Devices: A Longitudinal, Multidimensional Analysis
    Nikravesh, Ashkan, Choffnes, David R, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, Mao, Morley Z, and Welsh, Matt
    In Passive and Active Measurement Conference (PAM ’14) 2014
  23. PAM
    Peering at the Internet’s Frontier: A First Look at ISP Interconnectivity in Africa
    Gupta, Arpit, Calder, Matt, Feamster, Nick, Chetty, Marshini, Calandro, Enrico, and Katz-Bassett, Ethan
    In Passive and Active Measurement Conference (PAM ’14) 2014
  24. PAM
    The Need for End-to-End Evaluation of Cloud Availability
    Hu, Zi, Zhu, Liang, Ardi, Calvin, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, Madhyastha, Harsha V, Heidemann, John, and Yu, Minlan
    In Passive and Active Measurement Conference (PAM ’14) 2014
  25. PAM
    Dissection Round Trip Time on the Slow Path Using a One-Packet Approach
    Marchetta, Pietro, Botta, Alessio, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, and Pescapè, Antonio
    In Passive and Active Measurement Conference (PAM ’14) 2014
  26. CCR
    NOSIX: A Lightweight Portability Layer for the SDN OS
    Yu, Minlan, Wundsam, Andreas, and Raju, Muruganantham
    In Computer Communications Reivew (CCR) 2014
  27. ONS
    SENSS: Software Defined Security Service
    Yu, Minlan, Zhang, Ying, Mirkovic, Jelena, and Alwabel, Abdulla
    In Presented as part of the Open Networking Summit 2014 (ONS 2014) 2014

2013

  1. CoNEXTW
    Towards Impactful Routing Research: Running Your Own (Emulated) AS on the (Real) Internet
    Schlinker, Brandon, Zarifis, Kyriakos, Cunha, Italo, Feamster, Nick, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, and Yu, Minlan
    In Proceedings of the ACM CoNEXT Student Workshop 2013
  2. CoNEXTW
    Don’t Trust Traceroute (Completely)
    Marchetta, Pietro, Persico, Valerio, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, and Pescapè, Antonio
    In Proceedings of the ACM CoNEXT Student Workshop 2013
  3. CoNEXTW
    Diagnosing Slow Web Page Access at the Client Side
    Flach, Tobias, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the ACM CoNEXT Student Workshop 2013
  4. ICCVE
    Shortest remaining processing time based schedulers for reduction of traffic congestion
    Ahmad, Fawad, Mahmud, S A, Khan, G M, and Yousaf, F Z
    In 2013 International Conference on Connected Vehicles and Expo (ICCVE) 2013
  5. ICCVE
    Real time evaluation of shortest remaining processing time based schedulers for traffic congestion control using wireless sensor networks
    Ahmad, Fawad, Khan, I, Mahmud, S A, Khan, G M, and Yousaf, F Z
    In 2013 International Conference on Connected Vehicles and Expo (ICCVE) 2013
  6. ICCVE
    Feasibility of deploying wireless sensor based road side solutions for Intelligent Transportation Systems
    Ahmad, Fawad, Basit, A, Ahmad, H, Mahmud, S A, Khan, G M, and Yousaf, F Z
    In 2013 International Conference on Connected Vehicles and Expo (ICCVE) 2013
  7. ICCVE
    Implementation of shortest remaining processing time based schedulers on a 32 bit serial based processing platform
    Ahmad, Fawad, Ali, M, Mahmud, S A, Khan, G M, and Yousaf, F Z
    In 2013 International Conference on Connected Vehicles and Expo (ICCVE) 2013
  8. HotNets
    AdReveal: Improving Transparency into Online Targeted Advertising
    Liu, Bin, Sheth, Anmol, Weinsberg, Udi, Chandrashekar, Jaideep, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the 12th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (HotNets) 2013
  9. ATS
    A New March Test for Process-Variation Induced Delay Faults in SRAMs
    Cheng, Da, Hsiung, Hsunwei, Liu, Bin, Chen, Jianing, Zeng, Jia, Govindan, Ramesh, and Gupta, Sandeep
    In IEEE Asian Test Symposium 2013
  10. ATS
    Interplay of Failure Rate, Perfromance, and Test Cost in TCAM under Process Variations
    Hsiung, Hsunwei, Cheng, Da, Liu, Bin, Govindan, Ramesh, and Gupta, Sandeep
    In IEEE Asian Test Symposium 2013
  11. SOSP
    CSPAN: Cost-Effective Geo-Replicated Storage Spanning Multiple Cloud Services (To Appear)
    Wu, Zhe, Butkiewicz, Michael, Perkins, Dorian, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, and Madhyastha, Harsha
    In Proceedings of the 24th ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles (SOSP ’13) 2013
  12. IMC
    Mapping the Expansion of Google’s Serving Infrastructure
    Calder, Matt, Fan, Xun, Hu, Zi, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, Heidemann, John, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the ACM Internet Measurement Conference (IMC ’13) 2013
  13. SIGCOMM
    SIMPLE-fying Middlebox Policy Enforcement Using SDN
    Qazi, Zafar, Tu, Cheng-chun, Chiang, Luis, Miao, Rui, Sekar, Vyas, and Yu, Minlan
    In Proceedings of the ACM Conference of the Special Interest Group on Data Communication (SIGCOMM ’13) 2013
  14. SIGCOMM
    PoiRoot: Investigating the Root Cause of Interdomain Path Changes
    Javed, Umar, Cunha, Italo, Choffnes, David R, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, Anderson, Thomas, and Krishnamurthy, Arvind
    In Proceedings of the ACM Conference of the Special Interest Group on Data Communication (SIGCOMM ’13) 2013
  15. SIGCOMM
    Reducing Web Latency: the Virtue of Gentle Aggression
    Flach, Tobias, Dukkipati, Nandita, Terzis, Andreas, Raghavan, Barath, Cardwell, Neal, Cheng, Yuchung, Jain, Ankur, Hao, Shuai, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the ACM Conference of the Special Interest Group on Data Communication (SIGCOMM ’13) 2013
  16. HotSDN
    Resource/Accuracy Tradeoffs in Software-Defined Measurement
    Moshref, Masoud, Yu, Minlan, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Hot Topics in Software Defined Networking (HotSDN 2013) 2013

    to be updated

  17. HotSDN
    FlowTags: Enforcing Network-Wide Policies in the Presence of Dynamic Middlebox Actions
    Fayazbakhsh, Seyed, Sekar, Vyas, Yu, Minlan, and Mogul, Jeff
    In Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Hot Topics in Software Defined Networking (HotSDN 2013) 2013
  18. IETF
    TCP Instant Recovery: Incorporating Forward Error Correction in TCP
    Flach, Tobias, Dukkipati, Nandita, Cheng, Yuchung, and Raghavan, Barath
    In Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Hot Topics in Software Defined Networking (HotSDN 2013) 2013
  19. ISSTA
    Calculating Source Line Level Energy Information for Android Applications
    Li, Ding, Hao, Shuai, Halfond, William G J, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the International Symposium in Software Testing and Analysis (ISSTA 2013) 2013

    The popularity of mobile apps continues to grow as developers take advantage of the sensors and data available on mobile devices. However, the increased functionality comes with a higher energy cost, which can cause a problem for users on battery constrained mobile devices. To improve the energy consumption of mobile apps, developers need detailed information about the energy consumption of their applications. Existing techniques have drawbacks that limit their usefulness or provide information at too high of a level of granularity, such as components or methods. Our approach is able to calculate source line level energy consumption information. It does this by combining hardware-based power measurements with program analysis and statistical modeling. Our empirical evaluation of the approach shows that it is fast and accurate.

  20. USCTR
    Mapping the Expansion of Google’s Serving Infrastructure
    Calder, Matt, Fan, Xun, Hu, Zi, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, Heidemann, John, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the International Symposium in Software Testing and Analysis (ISSTA 2013) 2013
  21. USCTR
    Diagnosing Path Inflation of Mobile Clients
    Zarifis, Kyriakos, Flach, Tobias, Nori, Srikanth, Choffnes, David, Govindan, Ramesh, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, Mao, Morley, and Welsh, Matt
    In Proceedings of the International Symposium in Software Testing and Analysis (ISSTA 2013) 2013
  22. MDM
    Building a Delay-Tolerant Cloud for Mobile Data
    Hao, Shuai, Agrawal, Nitin, Aranya, Akshat, and Ungureanu, Cristian
    In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Mobile Data Management (MDM 2013) 2013

    Mobile data usage is on a tremendous rise, due not only to increasing number of users but also to an increase in the number of applications that transfer data over the network. Moreover, applications for sharing, sensing, and collaboration have become more popular, causing significant amounts of data to be generated on devices. Managing this data –syncing it to the cloud, or with other users or devices– is a crucial and often challenging part of writing mobile apps and services. In spite of plenty of good advice and best practices from OS vendors and network operators, storing and transferring mobile data is fraught with issues. On the one hand, an app developer needs to worry about the semantics of data storage and synchronization, while on the other, about the end-user experience, which maybe impacted by poor and intermittent network connectivity. To address the needs of the app developers and the end-users, we have built Izzy: a platform to rapidly develop and deploy data-centric mobile apps. Izzy provides well-defined and easy to use semantics for accessing local storage and for synchronizing data with a remote, scalable, global store. Izzy also provides global store access to the cloud-resident part of the applications (if any) through a similar server API. Last but not least, Izzy is designed to be frugal: it conserves mobile device resources by applying delay-tolerance and data reduction techniques (message coalescing and compression) across applications on a mobile device. In this paper we present the design of Izzy and our early experiences with using it.

  23. MobiSys
    SIF: A Selective Instrumentation Framework for Mobile Applications
    Hao, Shuai, Li, Ding, Halfond, William G J, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys’13) 2013

    Mobile app ecosystems have experienced tremendous growth in the last five years. As researchers and developers turn their attention to understanding the ecosystem and its different apps, instrumentation of mobile apps is a much needed emerging capability. In this paper, we explore a selective instrumentation capability that allows users to express instrumentation specifications at a high level of abstraction; these specifications are then used to automatically insert instrumentation into binaries. The challenge in our work is to develop expressive abstractions for instrumentation that can also be implemented efficiently. Designed using requirements derived from recent research that has used instrumented apps, our selective instrumentation framework, SIF, contains abstractions that allow users to compactly express precisely which parts of the app need to be instrumented. It also contains a novel path inspection capability, and provides users feedback on the approximate overhead of the instrumentation specification. Using experiments on our SIF implementation for Android, we show that SIF can be used to compactly (in 20-30 lines of code in most cases) specify instrumentation tasks previously reported in the literature. SIF’s overhead is under 2% in most cases, and its instrumentation overhead feedback is within 15% in many cases. As such, we expect that SIF can accelerate studies of the mobile app ecosystem.

  24. ICSE
    Estimating Mobile Application Energy Consumption Using Program Analysis
    Hao, Shuai, Li, Ding, Halfond, William G J, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In 35th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2013) 2013

    Optimizing the energy efficiency of mobile applications can greatly increase user satisfaction. However, developers lack viable techniques for estimating the energy consumption of their applications. This project proposes a new approach that is both lightweight in terms of its developer requirements and provides fine-grained estimates of energy consumption at the code level. It achieves this using a novel combination of program analysis and per-instruction energy modeling. In evaluation, our approach is able to estimate energy consumption to within 10% of the ground truth for a set of mobile applications from the Google Play store. Additionally, it provides useful and meaningful feedback to developers that helps them to understand application energy consumption behavior.

  25. IPSN
    MediaScope: Selective On-Demand Media Retrieval from Mobile Devices
    Jiang, Yurong, Xu, Xing, Terlecky, Peter, Abdelzaher, Tarek, Bar-Noy, Amotz, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the 12nd ACM/IEEE Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN’13) 2013

    to be updated

  26. NSDI
    P3: Toward Privacy-Preserving Photo Sharing
    Ra, Moo-Ryong, Govindan, Ramesh, and Ortega, Antonio
    In Proceedings of the 10th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI’13) 2013

    to be updated

  27. NSDI
    Software defined traffic measurement with OpenSketch
    Yu, Minlan, Jose, Lavanya, and Miao, Rui
    In Proceedings of the 10th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI’13) 2013

    to be updated

  28. NSDI
    Scalable Rule Management for Data Centers
    Moshref, Masoud, Yu, Minlan, Sharma, Abhishek, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the 10th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI’13) 2013

    to be updated

2012

  1. IMC
    Quantifying Violations of Destination-based Forwarding in the Internet
    Flach, Tobias, Katz-Bassett, Ethan, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the ACM Internet Measurement Conference (IMC ’12) 2012
  2. SenSys
    Cloud-Enabled Privacy-Preserving Collaborative Learning for Mobile Sensing
    Liu, Bin, Jiang, Yurong, Sha, Fei, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the 10th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys) 2012

    to be updated

  3. HotNets
    Towards Systematic Roadmaps for Networked Systems
    Liu, Bin, Hsiung, Hsunwei, Cheng, Da, Govindan, Ramesh, and Gupta, Sandeep
    In Proceedings of the 11th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (HotNets) 2012
  4. Ubicomp
    Improving Energy Efficiency of Personal Sensing Applications with Heterogeneous Multi-Processors
    Ra, Moo-Ryong, Priyantha, Bodhi, Kansal, Aman, and Liu, Jie
    In Proceedings of the 14th ACM International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (Ubicomp’12) 2012

    The availability of multiple sensors on mobile devices offers a significant new capability to enable rich user and context aware applications. Many of these applications run in the background to continuously sense user context. However, running these applications on mobile devices can impose a significant stress on the battery life, and the use of supplementary low-power processors has been proposed on mobile devices for continuous background activities. In this paper, we experimentally and analytically investigate the design considerations that arise in the efficient use of the low power processor and provide a thorough understanding of the problem space. We answer fundamental questions such as which segments of the application are most efficient to be hosted on the low power processor, and how to select an appropriate low power processor. We discuss our measurements, analysis, and results using multiple low power processors and existing phone platforms

  5. SIGCOMM
    LIFEGUARD: Practical Repair of Persistent Route Failures
    Katz-Bassett, Ethan, Scott, Colin, Choffnes, Dave, Cunha, Italo, Valancius, V, Feamster, Nick, Madhyastha, Harsha, Anderson, Tom, and Krishnamurthy, Arvind
    In Proceedings of the ACM Conference of the Special Interest Group on Data Communication (SIGCOMM ’12) 2012
  6. HotCloud
    vCRIB: Virtual Cloud Rule Information Base
    Moshref, Masoud, Yu, Minlan, Sharma, Abhishek, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the 4th USENIX Workshop on Hot Topics in Cloud Computing (HotCloud’12) 2012

    Cloud operators increasingly need many fine-grained rules to better control individual network flows for various management tasks. While previous approaches have advocated placing rules either on hypervisors or switches, we argue that future data centers would benefit from leveraging rule processing capabilities at both for better scalability and performance. In this paper, we propose vCRIB, a virtualized Cloud Rule Information Base that allows operators to freely define different management policies without the need to consider underlying resource constraints. The challenge in our approach is the design of a vCRIB manager that automatically partitions and places rules at both hypervisors and switches to achieve a good trade-off between resource usage and performance.

  7. GREENS
    Estimating Android Applications’ CPU Energy Usage via Bytecode Profiling
    Hao, Shuai, Li, Ding, Halfond, William G J, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In First International Workshop on Green and Sustainable Software (GREENS), in conjunction with ICSE 2012 2012

    Optimizing the energy efficiency of mobile applications can greatly increase user satisfaction. However, developers lack easily applied tools for estimating the energy consumption of their applications. This paper proposes a new approach, eCalc, that is lightweight in terms of its developer requirements and provides code-level estimates of energy consumption. The approach achieves this using estimation techniques based on program analysis of the mobile application. In evaluation, eCalc is able to estimate energy consumption within 9.5% of the ground truth for a set of mobile applications. Additionally, eCalc provides useful and meaningful feedback to the developer that helps to characterize energy consumption of the application.

  8. MobiSys
    Medusa: A Programming Framework for Crowd-Sensing Applications
    Ra, Moo-Ryong, Liu, Bin, Porta, Tom La, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys’12) 2012

    The ubiquity of smartphones and their on-board sensing capabilities motivates crowd-sensing, a capability which harnesses the power of crowds to collect sensor data from a large number of mobile phone users. Unlike previous work on wireless sensing, crowd-sensing poses several novel requirements: support for humans-in-the-loop to trigger sensing actions or review results, the need for incentives, as well as privacy and security. In this paper, we design and implement Medusa, a novel programming framework for crowd sensing that satisfies these requirements. Medusa provides high-level abstractions for specifying the steps required to complete a crowd-sensing task, and employs a distributed runtime system that coordinates the execution of these tasks between smartphones and a cluster on the cloud. We have implemented ten crowd-sensing tasks on a prototype of Medusa. We find that Medusa task descriptions are two orders of magnitude smaller than standalone systems required to implement those crowd-sensing tasks, and the runtime has low overhead and is robust to dynamics and resource attacks.

  9. TPDS
    Optimizing Information Credibility in Social Swarming Applications
    Liu, Bin, Terlecky, Peter, Bar-Noy, Amotz, Govindan, Ramesh, Neely, Micheal J, and Rawitz, Dror
    IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems 2012
  10. DCOSS
    Timely Report Delivery in Social Swarming Applications
    Liu, Bin, Terlecky, Peter, Xu, Xing, Bar-Noy, Amotz, Govindan, Ramesh, and Rawitz, Dror
    In IEEE Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS) 2012

2011

  1. CoNEXT
    Snooze: Energy Management in 802.11n WLANs
    Jang, Ki-Young, Hao, Shuai, Sheth, Anmol, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of The 7th International Conference on emerging Networking EXperiments and Technologies (ACM CoNEXT 2011) 2011

    Increasingly, mobile devices equipped with 802.11n interfaces are being used for a wide variety of applications including bandwidth-intensive HD video streaming. Recent work has shown that 802.11n interfaces are power-hungry, so energy management is an important challenge. 802.11n implementations have additional power states relative to earlier generations of 802.11 technology, so energy management challenges for 802.11n are qualitatively different compared to that faced by prior work. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of ”Snooze”, an energy management technique for 802.11n which uses two novel and inter-dependent mechanisms: client ”micro-sleeps” and ”antenna configuration management”. In ”Snooze”, the AP monitors traffic on the WLAN and directs client sleep times and durations as well as antenna configurations, without significantly affecting throughput or delay. ”Snooze” achieves 30  85% energy-savings over CAM across workloads ranging from VoIP and video streaming to file downloads and chats.

  2. ToN
    Neighborhood-Centric Congestion Control for Multihop Wireless Mesh Networks
    Rangwala, S, Jindal, A, Jang, K, Psounis, K, and Govindan, R
    IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 2011
  3. SenSys
    CarMA: Towards Personalized Automotive Tuning
    Flach, Tobias, Mishra, Nilesh, Pedrosa, Luis, Riesz, Christopher, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the 9th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys 2011) 2011

    Wireless sensing and actuation have been explored in many contexts, but the automotive setting has received relatively little attention. Automobiles have tens of onboard sensors and expose several hundred engine parameters which can be tuned (a form of actuation). The optimal tuning for a vehicle can depend upon terrain, traffic, and road conditions, but the ability to tune a vehicle has only been available to mechanics and enthusiasts. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of CarMA (Car Mobile Assistant), a system that provides high-level abstractions for sensing automobile parameters and tuning them. Using these abstractions, developers can easily write smartphone “apps” to achieve fuel efficiency, responsiveness, or safety goals. Users of CarMA can tune their vehicles at the granularity of individual trips, a capability we call personalized tuning. We demonstrate through a variety of applications written on top of CarMA that personalized tuning can result in over 10% gains in fuel efficiency. We achieve this through route-specific or driver-specific customizations. Furthermore, CarMA is capable of improving user satisfaction by increasing responsiveness when necessary, and promoting vehicular safety by appropriately limiting the range of performance available to novice or unsafe drivers.

  4. SIGCOMM NAP
    Finding Protocol Manipulation Attacks
    Kothari, Nupur, Mahajan, Ratul, Millstein, Todd, Govindan, Ramesh, and Musuvathi, Madan
    In Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM Symposium on Network Architectures and Protocols 2011

    We develop a method to help discover manipulation attacks in protocol implementations. In these attacks, adversaries induce honest nodes to exhibit undesirable behaviors by misrepresenting their intent or network conditions. Our method is based on a novel combination of static analysis with symbolic execution and dynamic analysis with concrete execution. The former .nds code paths that are likely vulnerable, and the latter emulates adversarial actions that lead to effective attacks. Our method is precise (i.e., no false positives) and we show that it scales to complex protocol implementations. We apply it to four diverse protocols, including TCP, the 802.11 MAC, ECN, and SCTP, and show that it is able to .nd all manipulation attacks that have been previously reported for these protocols. We also .nd a previously unreported attack for SCTP. This attack is a variant of a TCP attack but must be mounted differently in SCTP because of subtle semantic differences between the two protocols.

  5. MobiSys
    Odessa: Enabling Interactive Perception Applications on Mobile Devices
    Ra, Moo-Ryong, Sheth, Anmol, Mummert, Lily, Pillai, Padmanabhan, Wetherall, David, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys’11) 2011

    Resource constrained mobile devices need to leverage computation on nearby servers to run responsive applications that recognize objects, people, or gestures from real-time video. The two key questions that impact performance are what computation to offload, and how to structure the parallelism across the mobile device and server. To answer these questions, we develop and evaluate three interactive perceptual applications. We find that offloading and parallelism choices should be dynamic, even for a given application, as performance depends on scene complexity as well as environmental factors such as the network and device capabilities. To this end we develop Odessa, a novel, lightweight, runtime that automatically and adaptively makes offloading and parallelism decisions for mobile interactive perception applications. Our evaluation shows that the incremental greedy strategy of Odessa converges to an operating point that is close to an ideal offline partitioning. It provides more than a 3x improvement in application performance over partitioning suggested by domain experts. Odessa works well across a variety of execution environments, and is agile to changes in the network, device and application inputs.

  6. MobiSys
    Energy-Efficient Positioning for Smartphones using Cell-ID Sequence Matching
    Paek, Jeongyeup, Kim, Kyu-Han, Singh, Jatinder P, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys’11) 2011

    Many emerging location-aware applications require position information. However, these applications rarely use celltower-based localization because of its inaccuracy, preferring instead to use the more energy-hungry GPS. In this paper, we present CAPS, a Cell-ID Aided Positioning System. CAPS leverages near-continuous mobility and the position history of a user to achieve significantly better accuracy than the celltower-based approach, while keeping energy overhead low. CAPS is designed based on the insight that users exhibit consistency in routes traveled, and that cell-ID transition points that the user experiences can, on a frequently traveled route, uniquely identify position. To this end, CAPS uses a cell-ID sequence match- ing technique to estimate current position based on the history of cell-ID and GPS position sequences that match the current cell-ID sequence. We have implemented CAPS on Android-based smartphones and have extensively evaluated it at different locations, and for different platforms and carriers. Our evaluation results show that CAPS can save more than 90% of the energy spent by the positioning system compared to the case where GPS is always used, while providing reasonably accurate position information with errors less than 20% of the celltower-based scheme.

  7. ICRA
    Towards Autonomous Wireless Backbone Deployment in Highly-Obstructed Environments
    Vieira, Marcos A M, Govindan, Ramesh, and Sukhatme, Gaurav S
    In IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation 2011
  8. INFOCOM
    Optimizing Information Credibility in Social Swarming Applications
    Liu, Bin, Terlecky, Peter, Bar-Noy, Amotz, Govindan, Ramesh, and Neely, Michael J
    In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM 2011 mini-conference 2011

    With the advent of smartphone technology, it has become possible to conceive of entirely new classes of applications. Social swarming, in which users armed with smartphones are directed by a central director to report on events in the physical world, has several real-world applications. In this paper, we focus on the following problem: how does the director optimize the selection of reporters to deliver credible corroborating information about an event? We first propose a model, based on common intuitions of believability, about the credibility of information. We then cast the problem as a discrete optimization problem, and introduce optimal centralized solutions and an approximate solution amenable to decentralized implementation whose performance is about 20% off on average from the optimal while being 3 orders of magnitude more computationally efficient. More interesting, a time-averaged version of the problem is amenable to a novel stochastic utility optimization formulation, and can be solved optimally, while in some cases yielding decentralized solutions.

  9. USCTR
    CarMA: Towards Personalized Automotive Tuning
    Flach, Tobias, Mishra, Nilesh, Pedrosa, Luis, Riesz, Christopher, and Govindan, Ramesh
    In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM 2011 mini-conference 2011

    Wireless sensing and actuation have been explored in many contexts, but the automotive setting has received relatively little attention. Automobiles have tens of onboard sensors and expose several hundred engine parameters which can be tuned (a form of actuation). The optimal tuning for a vehicle can depend upon terrain, traffic, and road conditions, but the ability to tune a vehicle has only been available to mechanics and enthusiasts. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of CarMA (Car Mobile Assistant), a system that provides high-level abstractions for sensing automobile parameters and tuning them. Using these abstractions, developers can easily write smartphone “apps” to achieve fuel efficiency, responsiveness, or safety goals. Users of CarMA can tune their vehicles at the granularity of individual trips, a capability we call personalized tuning. We demonstrate through a variety of applications written on top of CarMA that personalized tuning can result in over 10% gains in fuel efficiency. We achieve this through route-specific or driver-specific customizations. Furthermore, CarMA is capable of improving user satisfaction by increasing responsiveness when necessary, and promoting vehicular safety by appropriately limiting the range of performance available to novice or unsafe drivers.

  10. AdHoc
    Mitigating multi-path fading in a mobile mesh network
    Vieira, Marcos A M, Taylor, Matthew E, Tandon, Prateek, Jain, Manish, Govindan, Ramesh, Sukhatme, Gaurav S, and Tambe, Milind
    Ad Hoc Networks 2011
  11. MONET
    Mathematical Analysis of Throughput Bounds in Random Access with ZigZag Decoding
    Paek, Jeongyeup, and Neely, Michael
    Journal of Mobile Networks and Applications (MONET) 2011

    We investigate the throughput improvement that ZigZag decoding (Gollakota and Katabi 2008) can achieve in multi-user random access systems. ZigZag is a recently proposed 802.11 receiver design that allows successful reception of packets despite collision. Thus, the maximum achievable throughput of a wireless LAN can be significantly improved by using ZigZag decoding. We analyze the throughput bounds in four different idealized multi-access system models for the case when ZigZag decoding is used. We also provide results for the Aloha and CSMA models where exact closed form solutions are infeasible to calculate. Our analysis and simulation results show that ZigZag decoding can significantly improve the maximum throughput of the random access system.